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 How to Use a Dictionary

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Samiha
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عدد المساهمات : 159
تاريخ التسجيل : 2010-01-23
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الموقع : http://english4all.forumarabia.com/

PostSubject: How to Use a Dictionary   Thu Dec 19, 2013 8:27 pm

Of the approximately 1 million words in the English language, the average English speaker knows 60,000 of those words,[1] A dictionary can be a very handy tool. Besides helping with spelling and word meanings, being able to use a dictionary effectively and regularly is a perfect way to improve your English language skills through the dictionary's range of other helpful information on everyday language usage and grammar. This article will explain how to make the most of using your dictionary.
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   Keep a good dictionary near where you study, work, or read
   1
   Purchase a quality dictionary. If you don't already own a good dictionary, consider purchasing one during sale time. It's also a good idea to upgrade your dictionary every now and then so that you have access to the latest new words that are added to the dictionary every year.
       Consider purchasing specialist dictionaries if they'd be useful in your study or career. Some examples of specialist dictionaries include language dictionaries, technical dictionaries, rhymes, crossword, subject dictionaries (for example, for math, chemistry, biology, horticulture, etc.), illustrated dictionaries (excellent for learning another language or for technical knowledge), slang and idioms, etc.
       Note that many countries have their own native dictionaries that might be more helpful than sourcing a dictionary from just anywhere, such as the Macquarie dictionary in Australia, Oxford dictionary in England, Webster's dictionary in the United States, etc.
       Some schools, universities and workplaces prefer the use of one particular dictionary. This is for reasons of maintaining a consistent style and understanding among everyone using them; make sure you use the right one for your assignments, editing, and reports.
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   2
   Familiarize yourself with your dictionary. Dictionaries vary in approach. The best way to learn how to use your particular dictionary effectively is to read its introductory section where you'll find out how the entries are arranged. The introductory section of your dictionary will explain important information such as the abbreviations and pronunciation symbols used throughout the entries. There may also be information on pronunciation of words with similar spellings; this can be helpful if you have only heard a word and you're not sure of its spelling. For example, if you hear "not", it might also be "knot" but the "k" is silent, and this list can help you with suggestions.
   3
   Know how to look up a word. When you come across a word you don't recognize or know the meaning of, keep a note of it. When you get around to looking it up, here is the sequence to follow:
       Proceed to the letter of the alphabet that your word begins with. For example, "dog" begins with "d". Don't forget the possible spellings for trickier words, such as "gnome" begins with a "g", or "psychology" begins with a "p", or "knock" begins with a "k", etc.
       Check for the guide words. These are located in the upper corner of each page and give you an indication of how close you are to locating your word, speeding up the process of going through the pages.
       Once close, use the second letter of your word to run down the page and locate your word. For example, if you were looking for the word "futile", "u" is the second letter. Perhaps you will see "furrow/futtock" in the upper left corner of the left page and "futtock plate/gaberlunzie" in the upper right corner of the right page. Now you know that "futile" is going to be located on one of these two pages.
       Scan down the list of entry words moving past "Furry" and "Fuse" and "Fuss". Since the example word begins with "Fut", go past all the "Fur" and all the "Fus" words alphabetically until you reach the "FUT" area of the page. In this example, move right down through "Fut" and "Futhark" and this is at last, where you will find "futile".
   4
   Know how to make the most of your find. Once you've located the word, there are several useful elements that you can discover about the word from the dictionary entry. Read the information given about this entry, and depending on your dictionary, you might find many things:
       A definition of the word.
       One or more pronunciations. Look for a pronunciation key near the beginning of the dictionary to help you interpret the written pronunciation. Learn how to use the stress marks, as these will aid your pronunciation. The stress mark ' is place just prior to the syllable where the stress is placed.[2]
       Capitalization, where relevant.
       Prepositions, such as "in", "on", etc. and their use with the word in question.
       Irregular endings for verbs.
       Synonyms and antonyms. You can use these in your writing, or as further clues towards the word's meaning.
       An etymology, derivation, or history of the word. Even if you don't know Latin or Ancient Greek, you may find that this information helps you to remember or understand the word.
       Examples or citations of how the word is used. Use these to add context to the meaning of the word.
       Derived terms and inflections (I am, you are, etc).
       Phrases or idioms associated with the word, and slang usage. In addition, the dictionary may explain whether a word is formal or informal.
       Plurals of nouns.
       Near neighbor words that might be related, such as "futility".
       Spellings in other English (US English, British English, Australian English, etc.)
   5
   Think about how the information you've found relates to the word as you encountered it. If there are multiple definitions, decide which one matches your source or context for the word and notice how the different definitions are related to one another. In an English dictionary, the most common meaning is usually placed first where there are multiple meanings.
       Try using your new word in a sentence. If it's difficult to spell, write it a few times to help yourself remember it.
   Use a picture dictionary to broaden your technical or specific knowledge
   6
   Use your dictionary for other purposes than looking up a word. Many dictionaries come with an array of other useful information. Some of the information that you might find in your dictionary includes:
       Standard letters for jobs, RSVPs, filing complaints, official writing, etc.
       Maps and geographical information.
       Statistics on population.
       Weights, volume and measurements.
       Lists of countries, cities, capitals, etc.
       Flags of countries, states, provinces, regions, etc.
       Lists of famous or historical people.
       Lists of facts.
   7
   Learn how to use an online dictionary. Online dictionaries are easy. Choose a suitable free online dictionary, or a subscription one if your place of work or study subscribes, and simply type in the word you're looking for. The search engine will return the word to you and the definition section should contain most of the elements discussed above. Note that free services may not be as comprehensive as a subscription or book dictionary, so keep this in mind when you're not sure that you've found the right answer.
       Make use of the audio content provided with online dictionaries. This can help considerably when you're unsure how to pronounce the word.
       To use Google to find online definitions, type: "define: futile". The search engine will only look for definitions.
   8
   Have fun using a dictionary. The last step is the most fun – simply browse a dictionary to enlighten yourself about new words now and then. Just open the dictionary up to any page and scan the page for words that are unfamiliar or seem interesting. Pinpoint them, read the definition and try to add the new word to your thinking or talking during the next few days until it becomes a remembered part of your natural vocabulary.
       Play the dictionary game with friends. This consists of getting some friends together and a dictionary. The first player looks up a challenging word and uses it in a sentence. The other players have to guess if the use of the word is accurate or an outright fabrication. If a player guesses correctly, it's their turn next.
       Another dictionary game: Each player chooses a word which should be familiar to the other players, then reads out the dictionary definition. The other players compete to guess the word as quickly as possible - perhaps even shouting out while the definition is still being read.


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